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Exam Time: Thursday, 21st September, 2017
Commerce 2 (Essay)
9.30am – 11.30am
Commerce 1 (Objective)
11.30am – 12.20pm







41-50: ABCBCBAAAC⁠⁠⁠⁠





Pipeline transportation is a method of transportation in which liquid, gaseous, or solid products are moved over long distances through pipelines. It is used mainly for conveying natural gas, petroleum, and solid materials.

(i) Comfortable and Quick Services: It provides a regular, comfortable, efficient and quick service.
(ii) High Speed: The major advantage of air transport is its high speed. It is the fastest mode of transport and thus it is the most suitable mean where time is an important factor.
(iii) No Physical Barriers: It follows the shortest and direct route as seas, mountains or forests do not come in the way of air transport.
(iv) Easy Access: Air transport can be used to carry goods and people to the areas which are not accessible by other means of transport.
(v) Most Suitable for Carrying Light Goods of High Value: It is most suitable for carrying goods of perishable nature which require quick delivery and light goods of high value such as diamonds, bullion etc. over long distances.

(i) The target market characteristics: To select an effective channel,producers must look at the size, density, and purchase frequency and the quantity
purchased by the customers

(ii) Nature of the product:
Product characteristics important to the choice of channel of distribution include product size and weight, perishability, level of product control, and input required.

(iii) Cost efficiencies:
Cost factor is very important in channel selection just as in every marketing decision.

(iv) Company Characteristics:
In addition to evaluating customer and product characteristics, the channel analyst must consider company characteristics.


(i)By performance of the parties i.e. each party completing his obligations as stipulated by the
(ii) By frustration i.e. an event through no fault of
the parties that make one party unable to perform the contract. For example:if one party
suffers a prolonged illness which makes him unable to perform the contract.
(iii) By lapse of time i.e. if the time limit set for the contract to be executed by both parties has been passed. For example, sellers of real estate usually require that the buyers pay the full balance on the property within a certain time period after the initial down payment has been made.
(iv) By changes in law i.e. where a legal contract is rendered illegal through changes in law.

(i) Act on behalf of and be subject to the control of the principal
(ii) Act within the scope of authority or power delegated by the principal
(iii) Discharge his or her duties with appropriate care and diligence
(iv) Avoid conflict between his or her personal interests and those of the principal
(v) Promptly hand over to the principal all monies collected on principal’s behalf.
(vi) Agent owes a duty to the principal to act in the principal’s best interests within the authority of the agent .


(i) As a Ready Market for Natural Resources:
(ii) Supplementing Home Food Consumption:
(iii) Sources of Manufactured Goods:
(iv) Supply of Raw Materials and Spare Parts:
(v) Centres of Commerce:

(i) Adjustment through Exchange Depreciation (Price Effect): Under flexible exchange rates, the disequilibrium in the balance of payments is automatically solved by the forces of demand and supply for foreign exchange.
(ii) Devaluation or Expenditure-Switching Policy: Devaluation raises the domestic price of imports and reduces the foreign price of exports of a country devaluing its currency in relation to the currency of another country.
(iii) Direct Controls: To correct disequilibrium in the balance of payments, government also adopts direct controls which aim at limiting the volume of imports.
(iv) Adjustment through Capital Movements:
A country can use capital imports to correct a deficit in its balance of payments. A deficit can be financed by capital inflows.
(v) Adjustment through Income Changes:
Given the foreign exchange rate and prices in a country, an increase in the value of exports, causes an increase in the incomes of all persons associated with the export industries


(i)Accepting deposits: Commercial banks accepts deposits from public for safekeeping.Money can be kept in current,fixed and savings account
(ii)Agents of payment: Commercial banks can act as an agent of payment on behalf of their customers. They encourage and permit customers to have current account in which they can withdraw without notice by cheque
(iii)Lending to customers: This is perhaps the most profitable function of a commercial bank.Deposits from different customers are pooled together and given out as loan with interest to people and firms for profitable investment
(iv)Safekeeping of valuables: One of the function of commercial bank is to keep customers valuables such as jewellery,certificates etc
(v)Discount bill of exchange: Creditors can be paid by the bank immediately by discounting bill of exchange of their customers.This enables the creditor to be paid instantly and the debtor is allowed a period of credit

(i) Intercepting contraband (such as illegal drugs)
(ii) Checking travellers and their baggage, cargo and mail
(iii) Assessing and collecting Customs duties, excise taxes and Goods and Services Tax (GST) on imports
(iv) Protecting a country businesses against illegal trade
(v) Enforcing import and export restrictions and prohibitions collecting accurate import and export data








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