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GEOGRAPHY OBJ
21-30: EDCDCCDACC
31-40: CACBCDCCBA
41-50: CBDBBBDBEA
51-60: EDBAAABDAC

(1a)
Old scale = 1:50,000
New scale = 1:100,000

New scale/Old scale

= 50,000/100,000

= 1/2

L = 31cm
B = 31cm

New length = 1/2 x 31
= 15.5cm

New breadth = 1/2 x 31
= 15.5cm

(1bi)
The actual distance is 15cm
.:. VI / HE

= 15cm x 100,000/100,000

= 15km

(1bii)
-The drainage pattern is dendritic
-The River Watari flows from North West to South East in wide valleys
-The other river flows SW between the highlands
-The North west which River Watari flows from has much lowlands
-There is presence of flood at the riverline area due to presence of lowlands or plain.
-The rivers are surrounded by a highlands

(1biii)
(i) Agriculture
(ii) Fishing
(iii) Lumbering

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(2ai)
Great circle: Great circle is any line that divides the earth into equal halves or hemisphere. The centre of the Great circle is also the centre of the earth. The shortest distance between any two points on the earth ‘s surface lies along the circumference of the great circle which passes these points . The Great circle route is often used by aircraft on a long distance journey eg Polar air route between London and Los Angeles over Greenland.

(2aii)
International date line: International date line is where the date changes by exactly one day(24 hours) when it is crossed. There is a difference of one whole day (24hours) on both sides of longitude 180° . So, the 180° meridian represents theoretically ,a date line. The international date line is not straight for it avoids cutting across islands to prevent confusion in days and dates in the tiny islands.

(2aiii)
Time zone: Time zone is the division of the world into twenty four (24)time zone, each of which differ from the next zone by 15° in longitude or 1hour in time. The local time of the central meridian for each zone is applied to that zone which is called a time zone. All places located on the same time zone have the same time.

(2aiv)
Prime meridian: Prime meridian is the line of 0° longitude, the starting point for measuring distance both east and west around the Earth. The prime meridian is arbitrary, meaning it could be chosen to be anywhere. The prime meridian separates the eastern hemisphere from the western hemisphere.

(2b)
(Pick any Four)
(i) Parallels are lines of latitudes WHILE Meridians are lines of longitude
(ii) Parallels are drawn from west to east WHILE Meridians are drawn from north to south
(iii) Parallels never meet WHILE Meridians meet at the poles.
(iv) Parallels have different lengths(circumstances) WHILE Meridians have equal length
(v) Parallels are used to calculate distance WHILE Meridian are used to calculate time
(vi) Parallels are marked 0°- 90° North and South of the equator WHILE Meridians are marked 0°- 180° East and West of the Greenwich

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(3a)
(i) Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks: They are derived from sediments of pre existing rocks. The rock debris are usually deposited by agents of erosions such as water,wind or glacier.The deposited materials are pressed together to become solid by the weight of overlying deposits. This process of solidification is called compaction or cementation. They may form conglomerates
Examples are sandstone,breccia and shale.

(ii) Organic formed sedimentary rocks: These are rocks formed from the remains of living organisms. When sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of animals like corals or shellfish, such rocks are called Calcareous rocks.
Examples: limestone and chalk . But when sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of vegetable matter such as a swamps and forest,they are called carbonaceous rock. Examples: Coal, lignite and petroleum.

(iii) Chemically formed sedimentary rocks: These are rocks formed from precipitation. They are also formed from other rock solution or certain minerals from solution of salt. They are often referred to as evaporators. They are also formed from crystallization.
Examples includes Potash,sodium chloride(common salt) and nitrate

(3b)
(pick any four)
(i) Sedimentary rocks are stratified. They show distinct layers or strata.
(ii) They are non- crystalline
(iii) They may be coarse or fine grained depending on the nature of minerals deposited.
(iv) They are fossilized rocks. That is,they contain fossils of plants and animals.
(v) They are usually sold.
(vi) They are not resistant to erosion.
(vii)They are permeable.

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(4a)
(i)Temperature
(ii)Rainfall(precipitation)

(4b)
MERITS:
(Pick any three)
(i) It is very simple to understand
(ii) It is objective
(iii) It is commonly used in teaching at various levels of educational institutions
(iv) It is quantitative because numerical values are used for defining boundaries of climatic groups

DEMERITS:
(i) It did not consider the climate of highlands
(ii) Letters used are too many and confusing
(iii) There is no clear distinction of one climate from another

(4ci)
A = Tropical rainy climate

(4cii)
Aw = Tropical Grassland of savanna Distribution

(4ciii)
C = Warm temperature rainy climate (Humid mesothermal climates )

(4civ)
E = Polar climates (Ice climate)

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(8a)
Geographical data refers to any data which posses locational characteristics. In order words,it refers to a group of data which can be collated and analysed in order to generate some basic geographical information.

(8bi)
Vector data: Vector data is comprised of lines or arcs, defined by beginning and end points, which meet at nodes. The locations of these nodes and the topological structure are usually stored explicitly. A vector based GIS is defined by the vectorial representation of its geographic data.

(8bii)
Raster data: Rasters data are digital aerial photographs, imagery from satellites, digital pictures, or even scanned maps. Data stored in a raster format represents real-world phenomena: Thematic data (also known as discrete) represents features such as land-use or soils data.

(8biii)
Geographic database:
Geographic database is defined as a catalog that stores data that are spatially referenced. These databases are collections of similar data that are related either through location, data structure or type, or common underlying purpose.

(8biv)
Multi-temporal data: Multi temporal data is the acquisition of remotely sensed data from more than one time period. Multitemporal images and analysis techniques provide the tools to monitor land use and land cover change (LUCC) and have been instrumental in providing an understanding of global environmental change.

(8ci)
(Pick any three)
(i) Satellite image
(ii) Existing maps
(iii) Land surveys
(iv) Field works of survey
(v) Socio-economic statistical records
(vi) Aerial pphotographs

(8cii)
(Pick any three)
(i) GIS help with risk management and analysis by displaying which areas are likely to be prone to natural or man-made disasters.
(ii) GIS Plays a vital role in conserving natural resources and protecting the environment.
(iii) GIS enables the experts in the insurance sub sector to take critical decision in making their insurance business.
(iv) GIS has become an integrated, well developed and successful tool in disaster management and mitigation.

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