NECO GCE Government Obj & Theory Questions And Answers For 2018
Capitalism is an economic system in which capital goods are owned by private individuals or businesses. The production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market (market economy), rather than through central planning (planned economy or command economy).
(i) Right of private Property:
-Every individual has the right to accumulate property.
-An individual is free to use his property according to his will.
-Right of inheritance, i.e., after death of an individual his property goes to his successors.
(ii) Price mechanism:
Price mechanism means the free working of the forces of demand and supply to determine, prices in product market and factor market.
(iii) Profit motive:
Profit is the soul of all the institutions of capitalist system. A capitalistic economy is individualistic because everyone is motivated by self-interest or private profit motive to undertake high risks.
(iv) Freedom of enterprise:
There is freedom of enterprise in a capitalist economy. It means people are free to choose their occupation, profession or business according to their will.
(v) Consumer’s sovereignty:
In a capitalist economy people have freedom of consumption. They can spend their income on consumption according to their choice.
2a) Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution—which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the polity—that effectively controls the exercise of political power.
1. Indispensable for Administration:
Constitution is indispensable f administration of state. Administration would not be smooth, fair and efficient in the absence of a constitution. The constitution is a record of the state providing for rule of law.
2. Empowerment of state:
The constitution gives powers and strength to the state and government.
3. Establishment of values and Ideals:
Every constitution aims at establishing values and ideals. These ideals may include democracy, freedom or liberty, welfare people, equality and justice.
The ideas, values and goals of a constitution may be stated clearly or impliedly, of the goals of India is establishment of socialism. This has been clearly stated in preamble of the constitution. The interests of rich Americans have been protected b American constitution.
4. Shows Path and Direction to Government:
The constitution is blue print governance. It is the duty of government to follow this blue print. The constitution shows direction to the government. The government is likely to reach its goal if it proceeds in that direction. The constitution advises the government to avoid disputes, and also to disputes.
5. Makes Government Stable and Disciplined:
If the different organs of govern perform their functions according to the provisions of the constitution, the government will be effective and stable. The constitution has also fixed the limits of powers of to organs of government. They cannot cross these limits. As a result of this, there prevails discipline in the government. .
(i) Education: The education acquired by most people made them accept indirect rule system in the British West Africa.
(ii) Checks and balances: Most of the Obas were constitutional Obas and not absolute.
(iii) Decentralized political system:- The system was decentralized and not centralized, hence the partial success.
(iv) System of taxation: In the west, before indirect rule, there was a system of collecting tax which was acceptable to the people.
(v) Non-recognition of the educated elites: The educated
(vi) Religion: Christianity Was The dominant religion in the west. It is more democratic than Islamic religion.
(i)Interactions among nations bring about economic advancement especially in the areas of technology.
(ii)Interaction among nations of the world can help to spread civilization and modernization.
(iii)Interaction among nations of the world can help to spread civilization and modernization.
(iv)Political interaction removes the interference of other states trying to dominate the others.
(v)The interaction among nations led to the establishment of political organizations.E.g. U.N.O,
(i)Common language:-Through there are variations in Igbo language, but all the communities that made up IBO land understood themselves and that helped to bring them together as one entity
(ii)Age Grades:-These age grades carry out a lot of uniting work ,maintained peace and order,acted as army that warded off external attack ,saw to the sanitation of the communities etc
(iii)Marriage:-The various communities in the pre colonial era widened the scope of unity and co operation among the various communities that inter – married
(iv)Supreme God:-The Ibos believed in the supreme God called Chukwu or Chineke who made everything in the world and that it was equally responsible for the happening of every event in their societies
(v)Trade:-The various communities in iboland had rotatory form of markets and people moved from one community to another to trade and this acted as a unifying factor.
(i)Ethnicity In Nigeria (as in many parts of Africa), political conflicts
often have ethnic coloration.
(ii)Military Involvement in Politics Nigeria’s political instability could be traced to the frequent
military involvement in politics since January 15th, 1966.
Nigeria’s political instability and other related problems are a consequence of its leadership crises. Nigerian governments are run in ways that have been regarded as far from the modern western state systems upon which they are modelled.
(iv)Interests of the International Community
Political instability in Nigeria owe much of its cause to
internal factors, however the interplay of internal and external factors especially geo-political and economic interests of the international community constantly play a significant role in undermining the very processes and institutions that are
expected to nurture democracy and to instill a sense of stability for societal development in Nigeria.
(v)Issue of Money and Politics in Nigeria
Another root of political instability is the issue of money and
politics in Nigeria. In a civilized society, money is not a determining factor for elective post.
(i) Republican form of government: The constitution gave Nigeria a republican form of government.
(ii) Final court of appeal: The Supreme Court became the final court of appeal.
(iii) Fundamental Human Rights: The rights of citizens were fully entrenched and guaranteed.
(iv) Power of judicial review: The Supreme Court was given the power to check the excesses of the executive and the legislature.
(v) free from external interference: British undue external influence on the country ceased