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2017 NABTEB GCE CIVIC EDUCATION ANSWERS
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation, particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group’s homeland.
i) Formation of political parties.
ii) Formation of unions and associations that can protect the interest of members of the public.
iii) Support for the government through constructive criticism.
iv) Establishment of human right protection groups.
v) Provision of valuable ideas and information for
vi) Provision of legal aids for poor citizens who
cannot afford the services of lawyers.
This drug is definitely a household name. It comes in different popular brand names such as panadol, boska and M&B. Due to its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-
inflammatory properties, paracetamol is widely used – and
frequently abused – for the treatment of fever, headache
as well as mild to moderate body aches. Although it is relatively safe especially when compared with most other pain killers, it is not without adverse effects mostly when
consumed in excess. Evidently, the most dreaded adverse
effect is hepatotoxicity (liver damage) and this may occur after the maximum recommended dose of 4g (8 tablets) is exceeded per day.
This is another widely abused drug in Nigeria. Popular
brands include Alabukun and Phensic. Aspirin belongs to the group of drugs called Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs) which are often employed in the
treatment of severe headaches (such as migraine),
dysmenorrhoea (menstrual pain), rheumatoid arthritis,
osteoarthritis and many other causes of pain. Other
NSAIDs include ibuprofen, diclofenac, piroxicam
(feldene), indometacin and so on. They act by inhibiting
cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that normally protect the
epithelial lining of the stomach from acid secretion.
Codeine is an opioid analgesic also used in the management of pain and diarrhoea. Like other opioids, it
is widely abused because of its potential to produce
euphoria (high mood) when consumed in large quantities.
Hence, codeine abusers consume large quantities of
codeine-containing cough syrups which ultimately leads to
adverse effects like dependence, tolerance, sedation, euphoria, vomiting, etc.
Antibiotics such as tetracycline, metronidazole (flagyl)
and ciprofloxacin (ciprotab) are equally victims of
widespread abuse. For instance, ciprofloxacin is a
fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity variously used in the treatment of gastroenteritis (such
as cholera and dysentery), typhoid, sexually transmitted
infections (such as gonorrhoea and chancroid), skin
infections as well as urinary tract infections. However,
it’s not without adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, headache, dizziness and rashes.
These refer to drugs commonly used in the treatment of
sleep and anxiety disorders. Some of the common
examples are diazepam (valium), bromazepam (lexotan)
and lorazepam. Unfortunately, a lot of people with sleep
difficulties have become dependent on sleeping pills such
that they can hardly sleep without them. However,
prolonged use of these medications is not without adverse
effects such as respiratory depression, confusion,
tolerance, dependence, visual disturbances, reduced libido
(sexual drive) and headache.
i) Someone who has a prescription for pain or anxiety medication, and they take a different amount than what is prescribed by their doctor. For example, taking 2 pills instead of just 1 or taking twice the daily amount in a single day.
ii) Someone who does not have a prescription for a drug at all, but is using it anyway, bought off the street or received from a friend or a family member.
iii) Someone who is not old enough to use the drug alcohol, but is using it anyway.
iv) Someone who is combining the use of different drugs when they should not be, such as drinking alcohol while taking prescription medications in spite of a warning label regarding this.
v) People who are taking drugs and engaging in activities that are not advisable, such as someone who takes heavy medication and then is driving a car, again…against the warning labels.