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Exam Time: Tuesday 21st Nov. 2017
Agricultural science Paper III & II (Objective & Essay)
2.00 pm – 4.30 pm
AGRIC SCIENCE OBJ:
AGRIC SCIENCE THEORY:
(i)It makes it difficult for federal government to acquire land
(ii)Land acquisition now lies on few rich individuals
(iii)The state government can abuse his power by revoking the certificate of occupancy prematurely
(iv)It creates room for irregularities as many land speculators may backdate land agreement before the decree
(i) Population increase: the increase in population reduces the size of land available to the farmers and this eventually leads to low productivity or yield.
(ii) Land tenure system: the type of land tenure system in most west African nations does not make land available for commercial agriculture. The land tenure system either result in reduced farm land or non-availability of land.
(iii) Topography: the shape of the land can affect the availability of land. If the land is sloppy, swampy, hilly, e.t.c such land may not be suitable for farming.
(iv) Cultural practices: cultural practices like bush burning, shifting cultivation, e.t.c can make land unavailable for agriculture
(v) Soil type: the type of soil determines whether such land will be available for agriculture. If the soil is mainly sandy, such land will not be suitable for farming.
(i) Reducing compaction from heavy machinery
(ii) helping to create better soil structure
(iii) preventing soil structure damage created by working wet field
(i) clean planter with a pressure water or high pressure air especially important to wash off all starter fertilizer to prevent erosion
(ii) save all new planter for warranty use referral
(iii)store in a cool dry place
(iv) remove seed plate door
Agricultural pollution refers to biotic and abiotic byproducts of farming practices that result in contamination or degradation of the environment
and surrounding ecosystems, and/or
cause injury to humans and their
ii)Leaching, runoff, and eutrophication.
ii)Land tenure system
i)Irrigation and Rainfall
iv)Carbon Dioxide Increase
i)biotic and abiotic factors interact in the same fashion.
ii)The sole purpose is to promote and
iii)The continuation of any given biosphere is the interworking of bacteria, sunlight.
iv)the CO2, the soil, the fauna, the rain and all else that compromises the given environment.
Taungya system is system in which short term crops are grown in the early years of the plantation of a woody perennials species in order to utilize the land, control weeds, reduce establishment costs, generate early income and stimulate the development of the woody perennials species.
(i) Environmental enhancement: Forestry enhances the environment by increasing biodiversity, capturing carbon and use of fertiliser and pesticides
(ii) Forestry is tax efficient: The forest premium and timber income are free from income tax. Stamp Duty and Captial Gains only apply to the land not the timber and forestry qualifies for agricultural relief for inheritance tax
(iii) Flood reduction: Tree roots are key allies in heavy rain, especially for low-lying areas like river plains. They help the ground absorb more of a flash flood, reducing soil loss and property damage by slowing the flow.
(iv) Reduced farm input costs: It helps reduces farm input cost as planted land requires alot less costly inputs.
(i) Insect Pests destroy crops in the field through their biting, chewing, boring, sucking and defoliation
(ii) They increase the cost of production during the course of controlling them
(iii) They render vegetables and fruits unattractive and unmarketable
(iv) They reduced the profits of farmers
(i)Dairy cattle ie White fulani,Jersey,Ayrshere ,red poll etc
(ii)Beef cattle ie Sokoto gudali,Red bororo,Rahaji,Ndama etc
(iii)All purposes ie Muturu,Shuwa,Azawal,Biu etc
-A good reason to cull a bird is if it is very aggressive and severely wounding other animals.
-culling helps to reduce feed costs of poor producers
-To reduce the risk of injury and bruising to herd mates
-To prevent financial losses from trimming damaged carcasses caused by horned feedlot cattle during transport to slaughter
Causative organism:Bacteria(Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Mode of transmission:Breathing of air contaminated germs,Feed and water contaminated with droppings and litters
Symptom:Loss of weight
-Put on protective clothing to avoid getting stung
-Avoid excessive smoking of the hive
-Never frighten the bees as this makes them wild to sting
-Never crush bees as this makes the whole colony excited
Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
Originality in thought, word and action
He must be a good listener
Must be patient with the people
Must be honest and transparent
i)mobilization of saving
ii)provision of investment avenue
iii)proper regulation of funds to agricultural
iv)speed up the agricultural growth and development
i)Agricultural advancement is necessary for improving the supply of raw materials for the agro-based industries especially in our developing country.
ii)The progress in agricultural sector
provides surplus for increasing the
exports of agricultural products.
iii)agricultural goods and industrial production and a consequent increase in the general price
iv)agriculture sector is the backbone of
an economy which provides the basic
ingredients to mankind
v)agricultural output and productivity tend to contribute substantially to an overall economic development of the country
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